How to treat an addicted Quran?
How does Islam view addiction?
What happens to the soul of a person with an addiction disorder?
What happens to the addict to his relationship with God?
Treatment of drug addiction in the Koran?
These are some of the questions this article attempts to answer. Three archetypes of drug addiction will be explored here from an Islamic theological perspective. Theological reflections on what Islam says about drug use and why people become addicted will provide a good starting point for religious professionals who provide pastoral support to Muslims suffering from drug dependence. Determining the belief system and theological position of people with an addiction disorder may be a useful starting point for understanding how to help them. The literature that studies the theology of addiction in Islam is scarce.
This is a temporary article on the topic and a platform for the author and others to develop their own ideas and writing. From the outset, it should be clear that in this article, substance abuse is intended to refer to the use of recreational drugs and not as part of medical treatment. It is said that for drug abuse to occur, two prerequisites must be present: willingness and availability. These terms are necessary but not sufficient to explain why people use and abuse drugs. Various theories have been proposed to explain the causes of drug use from a variety of disciplines, such as biology, sociology, and psychology. One such model, controversial among scientists, is called the “disease model”. The central thesis of the model is that addiction is a biological phenomenon, and therefore genetically transmitted from parents to offspring. A positive aspect of the model is that it helps remove social stigma and blame of the addict and encourages the view that users are victims who need help, not condemnation.
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In contrast to the “disease model”, the one that is unpopular in medical circles is the “ethical model”. The focal point of this model is that people become addicted of their own volition. It is criticized as blindly biased and judgmental of the addict, though it places the burden of responsibility for rehabilitation on the addict. These models are based on the Cartesian distinction between body and mind/spirit. They do not take into account the existential issues of human nature, religiosity, and spirituality. Research has shown that spirituality and religion are protective factors that can reduce drug use and act as mechanisms against relapse. Cook asserts that there is an intrinsic relationship between material dependence and spirituality. The first is a spiritual problem in the sense that it affects relationships and affects values and beliefs. Similarly, religion has been associated with positive drug-related outcomes in a number of ways, such as changing the value that influences behavior or by acting as external control factors.
Studies show that people who believe in the importance of religion are less likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs. Research conducted on the Muslim population shows that religiosity and spirituality benefit the mental health of Muslim followers. Muslims recovering from drug abuse found that rediscovering their faith often served as a much-needed incentive to abstain from drug use. My own research has shown that for Muslims, talking about their religion and religious beliefs during treatment is welcome and appreciated.
Continued how to treat addicted Koran?
Malik Badri, a world-renowned Muslim psychologist, claims that the vast majority of Muslims who practice abstinence from alcohol and drugs do so for religious reasons. How did religion understand addiction? What theological models are available to explain addiction? These questions can be answered by looking at the perspective of different religions and religions. Most of the theories are found from within the Christian tradition. Cook identifies a number of these, as “addiction as a sin”, which is analogous to the “moral paradigm”, and argues that people become addicted as a result of their sins. Other paradigms include embodied theology, which is also known as presence theology. There are a number of archetypes in other religious traditions, such as Buddhism and Islam.
However, these are few and far between. Al-Badri proposes a model in which he blames the liberal attitude of the West on sex as a cause of drug addiction and even the AIDS crisis. He argues that the misuse of the word “abuse” has led to tolerance of drug and substance abuse in the West. Which can only be corrected by developing programs that are rooted outside Western models of non-judgmental treatment, and which are based on solid Islamic foundations. Al-Badri argues that this model should not take a non-judgmental stance towards condoning promiscuity and drug use. According to him, the goal of Islam is to interfere in human affairs for the betterment of society. Some criticized Al-Badri for being a fundamentalist and for his approach as a mask for the Islamization of knowledge.
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According to them, al-Badri’s approach is apologetic and should be read as a representation of Islamic opposition to Western modernity, a “fanony reflection of discourse”, as opposed to a theological paradigm explaining substance addiction. He then discusses two models of drug use from a theoretical perspective and ends with an exploration of a third model called Millati Islami, which is modeled on the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous and is used in treatment in the USA.
2. All intoxicants are prohibited: Intoxicants in the Qur’an and Islamic Society (How to treat an addict with the Qur’an)
The Qur’an is conservative about drug abuse, although it discusses intoxicants (and wine), and more specifically, alcohol. Any discussion about drugs and addiction must start from the Qur’an, because it is the basis of Sharia
3. Models of addiction in Islam
In Islamic theology, a Muslim is considered personally responsible to God and also part of the broader Muslim community. In addition to contributing to the life of the community, they derive their identity from it. Nasr writes: In the debate between those who claim the primacy of society and those who emphasize the fundamental importance of the individual. Islam takes a middle path and believes that this polarization is in fact based on a false dualism. There is no society without the individual. The individual cannot live without society (p. 159).
The support of community members is not limited to their immediate families only. It extends to the wider community. Muhammad said: “People are above God, and God loves those who care about God’s creation.” Teachings such as the above have influenced the way Muslims organize their lives vis-à-vis each other and towards God. Cultural anthropologists have divided societies into two cultures: one based on shame and one based on guilt. Scholars argue that both shame and guilt are feelings that occur when transgression occurs (or will occur), which results in the actor being evaluated negatively. However, feelings differ in their orientation towards self and others. Shame-based cultures have their own deterrent mechanisms for doing the wrong things outside the person.
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“What will people say?” It is a common feature of a culture based on shame. Fear of being robbed in front of people prevents one from making a mistake. In contrast, guilt-based cultures have their own mechanisms built into the individual conscience. This leads to remorse, pity, and reparative action. Traditional Islamic societies rely primarily on a culture of shame. However, Islamic concepts of shame include one’s sense of shame before God. For Muslims, God is fully aware of the thoughts hidden in the deepest recesses of the heart: “No leaf falls without His knowledge, and there is not a single grain in the darkness of the earth.
Or anything, fresh or withered, not written. in a clear record. (Al-An’am 6:59). Having shame (come on) and humility, as well as being fully aware of God’s knowledge is to show etiquette (adab) toward God. In case this aspect of Islam is forgotten, a Muslim should act as a mirror. In this way, Islam views a person suffering from an addiction disorder not only as a failed individual, but as a failure of society as a whole. Guilt also has its place in Muslim societies. Once the sin/crime is committed, the person must repent (repent) to God for his or her sins. Repentance literally means return. When a person feels real remorse for his sins and tries to reform himself according to the Qur’an, God accepts his repentance and gives him the power to correct the mistake (Al-Anbiya 21:87).
Follow the models of addiction in Islam
In the Qur’anic account, when the Prophet Jonah fled Nineveh, God’s punishment for his disobedience came in the form of being swallowed by a whale. Feeling so guilty for his iniquity, Jonah prayed to God in the belly of the whale: and remembered the man with the whale, when he went out angry, thinking we could not bind him, but cried out in the pitch-darkness, “There is no god but you, glory be to you, I was wrong.” So we answered him, and delivered him from distress: This is how we save the believers (Al-Anbiya 87:21).
The teachings in the above narration are strong and clear: no one should despair of God’s mercy, as long as they understand their flaws and try to correct them. Below, we present three models of addiction according to Islamic texts and the teachings of religious scholars. Two of these protective models are based on a shame-based understanding of human nature. The ultimate paradigm is the one that is currently used in therapy and is a non-judgmental paradigm based on the Islamic understanding of guilt, in which the impetus for correction comes from within the deepest recesses of the human being. No single model is without problems, but they are at least steps forward towards developing a fuller and more comprehensive Islamic theology of drug addiction.
4. The Law: Addiction as a Crime
It was pointed out above that when drug use became a social problem in traditional Muslim societies, Muslim scholars began to consider its legal status in Sharia. Scholars have divided all procedures into five categories, known as legal standards: either something is necessary (obligatory), forbidden (haram), or permissible (halal). Those that are permissible are either recommended (mandub) or makruh (disliked). Violation of any legal rules results in a sin, but not necessarily a crime. The penalty for sin is a salvific punishment and, therefore, may be forgiven by God out of divine grace when one sincerely repents. All crimes are considered sins, but they are distinguished from sins in that they have legal effects, as well as their theological effects. For example, intercourse with a wife during her menstruation is seen as a sin with no legal consequences (al-Baqarah 2, 222).
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Conversely, murder is considered a sin and a crime punishable by law. Regarding drugs, most scholars with the exception of a few (such as Al-Qarafi d. 1285) considered that cannabis is prohibited by law. Thus, it is a crime and a sin at the same time, because, according to them, it has the same intoxicating effects as alcohol. They used a number of criteria to establish that it is forbidden, such as: harming one’s health, harming the health of others, wasting wealth, having sedative effects, eliciting one’s senses, distorting rational thinking, drunkenness, blurring the mind, and distorting physical and motor skill.
What are the legal consequences of drug poisoning? I will briefly discuss two of them. The Qur’an explicitly states that intoxicants are forbidden and a sin. Muhammad imposed forty lashes for those who fell under the influence of intoxicants (Al-Zarkashi, Zuhr Al-Arish, quoted in). Ibn Taymiyyah is of the opinion that there is no difference between alcohol and all other types of intoxicants, and that the user must be subject to corporal punishment (hadd). Strongly argue on this point: As for the hashish, the heady
6. Treating drug addiction with the Quran
Millati Islami: is a fellowship established for Muslims with an addiction disorder in the United States of America. Its 12 Steps are modeled on the 12-step model of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and sister fellowships, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), but rejects some of its points that directly conflict with Islamic faith. To what extent Millati Islami converts the observable AA 12 steps.
AA began in Akron, Ohio, USA, in 1935 and was influenced by the Oxford Congregation, an evangelical movement, as well as influenced by religious and medical thinking. Despite the roots of Christian communion, its concept of transformation into a higher power, whether it is Jesus, God, Jehovah, a group of drunkards (God), one’s grandmother or an inanimate, resonates well with many people. However, some Muslims with an addiction disorder may find that AA and NA’s focus on people as lifelong addicts and their belief that addiction is a disease rather than a test from God is inconsistent with their faith. A former Muslim heroin user in NA’s 12-step program recounts his experience with his non-Muslim counselor comparing the Millati Islami program with the 12-step Alcoholics Anonymous program.
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The counselor told me that my belief in God as my greatest power was not right for me and that I should be more open to choosing another deity. We wrestled about this until he made me leave the sanatorium. MI was founded to prevent this kind of problem from happening. The Zaid Imani Fellowship was founded in 1989 in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1993, the first annual fundraising drive was held, the proceeds of which went toward writing the MI 12 Steps brochure by the founder. By 1996, 42 MI groups had been established across 16 US states. Although their website has not been updated since then, the Facebook group created in 2012 is still active today.
In 2012, they had their 23rd annual conference. They write on their website. Just as NA was founded for its need to be indeterminate with regard to substance, Millati Islami was born from our need to be religiously specific with respect to spiritual principles. They further comment that MI “is not for everyone, but really for those who want freedom from addiction and a way of life. Islamic”.
Follow the treatment of drug addiction with the Koran
Despite this commitment to Islam, any mention of God on their homepage is written as may be the reason that although they wish to be rooted in an Islamic model, they do not want to exclude others from using their services. Below, their 12 steps are shown alongside the 12 AA steps for easy comparison. It can be seen that besides modeling in AA’s 12-step program (which is formulated to appeal to universal human values), their 12 steps are rooted at many points in the theological models discussed above. A brief commentary on some of the steps will help highlight this point better.
7. Commentary on the 12-step program (How to treat an addict with the Qur’an)
There is a stark difference between MI’s and AA’s Step 1. MI asserts that addiction is due to humans’ neglect of their purpose of creation to worship God. By recognizing their addiction, one realizes that humans depend on many factors in their lives. Children depend on their parents; This understanding leads one to realize that their parents also depend on many things, including God. Upon reaching these realizations, one begins to feel that the dependence on the substance and not on God has made his life unmanageable. They argue that their addiction is due to their failure to read and assimilate the Qur’anic directives regarding intoxicants mentioned above in “Addiction as a Paradigm Spiritual Disease”.
The second step mentions God directly in exchange for a “superpower”. It asserts that true faith in God’s omnipotence and mercy is the only thing that can save one from addiction. Not paying attention to God is what leads one to addiction in the first place. The third step is an interesting comparison. It can be seen that the phrase “as we understood it” is missing from the MI step. The authors argue that this statement contradicts Islamic faith. In Islam, God is transcendent over all perception.
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The human mind is incapable of understanding God. The authors point out that trying to understand God without the guidance of the Bible will lead to disasters, such as drug addiction, unmarried mothers, diseases, rising greed, wars, etc. Although this point may be theologically correct, it lacks the personal closeness to God that one needs in times of crisis. I have argued elsewhere that God’s essence needs to be restored from His transcendence if we are to develop a model of pastoral care that affirms God’s presence with people, not apart from them. The formulas for the fourth point are the same in both programs.
Evaluating one’s actions and mistakes is a step toward recovery. AA colleagues at this point emphasize resentment as the number one culprit. The authors of MI know that the culprit is sins and have done them themselves by citing the Qur’an, “What misfortune befalls you [people] is because of what your hands have done” (Al-Shura 42:30). Contemplating the matter and realizing this shortcoming will lead one to repentance and return to God. The fifth point is an interesting contrast. The MI point omits the reference to “recognition of another human being”. This is rooted in Islamic tradition, where it is strongly encouraged not to reveal one’s sins. Muhammad said: “God does not forgive the one who revealed his sins (the Mujahid) which he hid from the eyes of the people.”